1 cotton T-shirt 2500 litres

Source: Unesco-IHE Institue for Water Education (2005) The Water Footprint for Cotton Consumption, p. 21.
Link: https://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report18.pdf 
Link: https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/the-impact-of-a-cotton-t-shirt (2013)

1 pair of jeans 8000 litres

Source: Unesco-IHE Institue for Water Education (2005) The Water Footprint for Cotton Consumption, p. 21
Link: https://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report18.pdf
Link: https://waterfootprint.org/en/water-footprint/personal-water-footprint/

1 avocado 227 litres

Source: Unesco-IHE Institue for Water Education (2010) The Green, Blue and Grey Water Footprint of Crops and Derived Crop Products, p. 20
Link: https://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report47-WaterFootprintCrops-Vol1.pdf
Link: https://waterfootprint.org/en/about-us/news/news/grace-launches-new-water-footprint-calculator/

1 bottle of wine 630 litres

Source: Unesco-IHE Institue for Water Education (2010) The Green, Blue and Grey Water Footprint of Crops and Derived Crop Products, p. 16
Link: https://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report47-WaterFootprintCrops-Vol1.pdf 

Water footprint

Through production and consumption of food and goods we leave our biggest water footprint
Source: World Water Council & United Nations Water UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Consumption

Access to safe water

2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, of which the majority live in the least developed countries. 
Sources: Unicef & WHO, 2019. Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. 2000-2017, p. 6  
Safe water access: Drinking water from an improved water source that is located on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination (‘improved’ sources include: piped water, boreholes or tube wells, protected dug wells, protected springs, rainwater, and packaged or delivered water).

Access to basic water

785 million people live without even basic water access.
Sources: Unicef & WHO, 2019. Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. 2000-2017, p. 6 
Basic water access: Drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time is not more than 30 minutes for a round trip, including queuing 

1,000 children under the age of 5 die every day as a result of unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene

Source: Prüss-Ustün et al., 2014. Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle‐income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries, p. 1
Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/tmi.12329
Source: WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme). 2017. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. Wastewater: The Untapped Resource. Paris, UNESCO.
Link: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000247153 
Link: https://www.unicef.org/media/media_68359.html
Link: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/

80% of all wastewater returns to the environment without proper treatment

Source: WWAP, 2017 (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme). 2017. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020. Wastewater: The Untapped Resource. Paris, UNESCO, p. 2
Link: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000247153 
Link: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/


By 2050 2.5 billion more people are expected to live in cities, which accounts for 68% of the population. Nearly 90% of this increase is expected to take place in Africa and Asia.
Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Link: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html   

Business-as-usual will lead to a 40% gap between fresh water supply and demand by 2030

Source World Bank (2018).
Link: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/water/overview

Cities lose up to 60% of pumped water

Source: GWI Water Data Report 2019
Link: https://www.gwiwaterdata.com/data-hub/utilities 

Energy consumption for space cooling in buildings has doubled since 2000

Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) Energy Efficiency 2018 – Analysis and outlooks to 2040. IEA Market Report Series, sixth edition, p. 92
Link: https://webstore.iea.org/market-report-series-energy-efficiency-2018 
Link: https://www.iea.org/fuels-and-technologies/cooling

Climate change will cause heavier rainfalls leading to floods and inflow of seawater

Source: WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme)/UN-Water. 2018. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018: Nature-Based Solutions for Water. Paris, UNESCO.
Link: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000261424
Sources: United Nations World Water Assessment Programme, OECD 2016, Financial Management of Flood Risk, World Meteorological Organization Integrated Drought Management Programme)

London and Mexico City are running out of water

Source: Circle of Blue:: Zeropolis – Big Cities, Little Water
Link: https://www.circleofblue.org/zeropolis/ 
Source: W12 Congress
Link: https://www.w12-congress.com/about-the-w12/

Today, industries account for nearly 20% of all water consumption

Source: UNESCO (2012) United Nations world water development report 4: managing water under uncertainty and risk
Link: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000215644
Link: http://www.fao.org/aquastat/en/overview/methodology/water-use

Globally, we are losing an average of 30% of all pumped fresh water

Source: Quantifying the global non-revenue water problem, R. Liemberger and A. Wyatt, p. 834
Link: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alan_Wyatt/publication/326238463_Quantifying_the_global_non-revenue_water_problem/links/5e9df9e54585150839ef34b8/Quantifying-the-global-non-revenue-water-problem.pdf?origin=publication_detail

Water scarcity in Mexico City

Source: Circle of Blue: Floods and Water Shortages Swamp Mexico City
Link: https://www.circleofblue.org/2018/latin-america/floods-water-shortages-swamp-mexico-city/ 
Source: W12 Congress
Link: https://www.w12-congress.com/about-the-w12/

By 2050, 40% of the world’s population is projected to live under severe water stress

Source: UNWD 2020
Link: https://www.unwater.org/publications/world-water-development-report-2020/  

Flooding affects approximately 250 million people worldwide and causes USD 40 billion in losses on an annual basis

Source: OECD 2016 - Financial Management of Flood Risk, p. 9
Link: https://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/insurance/OECD-Financial-Management-of-Flood-Risk.pdf

Examples of non-revenue water (NRW) per country are:

United Kingdom 21%, Mexico 40%, United States 20%, Sweden 40%, Liberia 49%, Armenia 83%, China 21% and Venezuela 62%.
Source: R. Liemberger;  A. Wyatt : Quantifying the global non-revenue water problem, Appendix
Link: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alan_Wyatt/publication/326238463_Quantifying_the_global_non-revenue_water_problem/links/5e9df9e54585150839ef34b8/Quantifying-the-global-non-revenue-water-problem.pdf?origin=publication_detail

Emissions and climate change

Energy production accounts for 73% of CO2 emission – playing a critical role in climate change
Source: United Nations Water
Source: World Resource Institute
Link https://www.wri.org/blog/2020/02/greenhouse-gas-emissions-by-country-sector

Consumer behaviour

Changes in consumer behaviour and consumption patterns are expected to increase demand for water and energy by approximately 40% and 50% respectively by 2030.
Source: The European Commission: growing Consumerism
Link: https://ec.europa.eu/kno wledge4policy/foresight/topic/growing-consumerism_en

Today, more than 2 billion people are affected by water stress.

Sources: United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6, UNWD Report 2018, page 14

40% of the EU’s entire energy consumption comes from buildings, making them the largest energy consumer*. With more intelligent and energy efficient solutions in buildings, we can change this.

Source: European Commission Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
Link: https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/focus-energy-efficiency-buildings-2020-feb-17_en

Los Angeles, water scarcity

Due to severe water scarcity, Los Angeles imports more water than any other large city in the world, as water imports make up a full 80% of the city’s total water use.


Istanbul, flooding and rising sea levels:

Istanbul is exceptionally exposed to floods and coastal inundation, and it is estimated that rising sea levels and storm surges will cost the city as much as $200 mil. annually until 2030:


Quangzhou, pollution:

In 2015, Guangzhou produced more than 1.6 billion tons of wastewater, from which microplastics were released into the Pearl River through sewage discharge, runoff, and industrial wastewater. The amount of plastic waste discharged annually from the Pearl River into the South China Sea is estimated to be about 136,000 tons.


Water scarcity

Four billion people, or two-thirds of the global population, live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least one month of the year. Half a billion people face severe water scarcity every day. This amount is projected to increase drastically towards 2050.


UNESCO, 2020. UN World Water Development Report 2020, p. 20-24; https://www.unwater.org/publications/world-water-development-report-2020/  (UN World Water Development Report 2020 et al. )

Mekonnen & Hoekstra, 2016. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity, p. 1. https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/2/e1500323

Cities in risk of water crisis:

Source: WRI – World Research Institute - Aqueduct™

Link: https://www.wri.org/applications/aqueduct/water-risk-atlas/#/?advanced=false&basemap=hydro&indicator=a7c3ffe1-aa0e-46ed-b947-d3cbafa2a5d1&lat=32.7688004848817&lng=-52.20703125000001&mapMode=view&month=1&opacity=0.5&ponderation=DEF&predefined=false&projection=absolute&scenario=business_as_usual&scope=future&timeScale=annual&year=2030&zoom=3

Source: BBC, University of Arizona, UNESCO and SOSNPO

Link: https://www.w12-congress.com/about-the-w12/ 
Link: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-42982959

The UN states that access to clean water is a basic human right:

Source: UN General Assembly and the Human Rights Council, 2010.

Link: https://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/a-65-53-add1.pdf
Link: https://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/64/292
Link: https://www.unwater.org/water-facts/human-rights/

Non-revenue water:

Globally, an average of 30% of all pumped water never reaches the tap. In many cities, the water loss is even higher and reaches 60%. The water is lost due to both leakages and theft. A few examples of non-revenue water (NRW) by country are: United Kingdom: 21%; Mexico: 40%; United States: 20%; Sweden: 40%; Liberia: 49%; Armenia: 89%; China: 21%; Venezuela: 62%.

Source: Liemberger & Wyatt, 2019. Quantifying the global non-revenue water problem – Appendix19; GWI, n.d. Utilities Database20.


Source: GWI (Global Water Intel) (2019). Utilities Database.

https://www.gwiwaterdata.com/data-hub/utilities (NB gated content; Contact Grundfos if necessary)